PUBLIC-PRIVATE: Relasi Negara-Masyarakat dalam Tiga Cerita Rumah Tangga

Widya Ayu Permatasari, Suraya Abdulwahab Afiff
  JSBN, pp. 135-145  

Abstract


The establishment of a gold mining company in Desa S caused the split of society into two part. The first part of the community supported mining companies and the second part, some of them refused the establishment of mining companies. So far, the phenomenon of the split of society into two part, often seen in the national and local domains. Whereas, this study wants to see this phenomenon occur in the realm of the household. The division of society in the realm of households is interesting to understand when the role of local state actors is in it. This condition occurred in my research, where there were three households in which there were local level state actors. The position of these state actors is quite dilemma, on the one hand, a family member supports a mining company, on the other hand, one family member rejects a mining company. The study of state-society relations is an appropriate study in understanding these conditions. In this study, the approach used in assessing the relation of state-society is Migdal's ‘state in society’. One of Migdal's main arguments in this approach is that the state works on two levels, practice and image, where Migdal presupposes an entity to have a social boundary between the public (state and agency) and private (subject to state rules). However, what happened in the research that I did, there was no separation between public and private in the state-society relations in the household domain. Therefore, this study would like to show that the boundary between public and private is blended and overlaps each other in the relations of the state-society in the household domain.

 

Berdirinya perusahaan pertambangan emas di Desa S menyebabkan terbelahnya masyarakat menjadi dua kubu. Kubu pertama sebagian masyarakat mendukung perusahaan pertambangan dan kubu kedua sebagian masyarakat lainnya menolak berdirinya perusahaan pertambangan. Selama ini fenomena perpecahan masyarakat, sering dilihat dalam ranah nasional maupun lokal. Penelitian ini ingin melihat fenomena tersebut terjadi dalam ranah rumah tangga. Terbelahnya masyarakat dalam ranah rumah tangga menarik untuk dipahami ketika peran aktor negara tingkat lokal berada di dalamnya. Dalam penelitian saya, terdapat tiga rumah tangga yang di dalamnya terdapat aktor-aktor negara tingkat lokal. Posisi aktor-aktor negara ini cukup dilematis, di satu sisi salah seorang anggota rumah tangga mendukung perusahaan pertambangan, di sisi lain salah seorang anggota rumah tangga menolak perusahaan pertambangan. Kajian relasi negara-masyarakat adalah kajian yang tepat dalam memahami kondisi tersebut. Dalam penelitian ini, pendekatan yang digunakan dalam mengkaji relasi negara-masyarakat adalah state in society milik Migdal. Salah satu argumen utama Migdal dalam pendekatan ini adalah negara bekerja di dua level, yaitu praktek dan citra, dimana Migdal mengandaikan suatu entitas memiliki batas sosial antara public (negara dan agensinya) dan private (subjek aturan negara). Namun, yang terjadi dalam penelitian yang saya lakukan, tidak ada pemisahan mengenai public dan private dalam relasi negara-masyarakat di ranah rumah tangga. Oleh karena itu, penelitian dengan menggunakan kerangkan etnografi ini ingin memperlihatkan bahwa batasan antara public dan private itu blured dan saling tumpang tindih dalam relasi negara-masyarakat di ranah rumah tangga.


Keywords


State-society relation; state in society; public-private; ethnography; relasi negara-masyarakat; negara dalam masyarakat; publik-pribadi; etnografi

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